Thermodynamic potentials: Gibbs free energy; per molecule and per
unit volume thermodynamic potentials.
First order phase transitions: experimental observations;
thermodynamic phases; free energy per unit volume; conditions for phase
separation; local and global stability of a thermodynamic phase;
Molecular interactions: hard-core repulsion; Van der Waals
attraction; induced dipole; electronic and dipole polarizability;
estimations of Van der Waals attraction for simple molecules;
Incorporation of molecular interactions into free energy: phase
coexistence; common tangent construction; phase diagrams; spinodal and
binodal lines; critical temperature; Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Van der Waals gas: free energy; pressure; spinodal; critical
point; estimations of critical temperature; approximation of binodal
far from the critical point.
Van der Waals gas near the critical point: free energy; binodal
line; first and second-order phase transition; critical opalescence;
nucleation and growth; surface energy; critical nucleous.
Ferromagnet-paramagnet second-order phase transition; Landau
theory of phase transitions.
Kinetic theory of gases: characteristic velocities; kinetic
derivation of pressure of ideal gas; Maxwell distribution of
Diffusion and random walks on a lattice model: mean-square
displacement; diffusion coefficient; the diffusion equation for random
walks; diffusion as transport phenomenon; derivation of Fick's laws
from microscopic considerations; self- diffusion and collective
Diffusion in gas: random walks; distribution of free paths; mean
free path; mean square displacement of a molecule; self-diffusion
coefficient; diffusion in concentration gradient; derivation of Fick's
laws; equivalence of self-diffusion and collective diffusion
coefficients for gases.
Other linear transport phenomena in gases: heat conductivity;
Fourier law; thermalization; thermal conductivity coefficient; momentum
transport; viscosity; mobility of molecules in the external field;
Einstein relation; detailed balance.
Quantum gases: limits of classical approach to gases; bosons and
fermions; Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics; Boltzmann gas as
extrapolation of classical gas.
Fermions: density of states; Fermi energy; total energy and
pressure of fermion gas at zero temperature; heat capacity of fermion
Bosons: Bose-Einstein condensation; physical origin and
derivation; relation to superfluidity and superconductivity.
C. Kittel and H. Kroemer, Thermal Physics
F. Reif F, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics,
McGraw-Hill, NY 1965, QC 175.R43